turbulent flow

In contrast to laminar flow, in turbulent flow any particle of a body may move in any direction with respect to any other particle. Hydrologists and river scientists, as well as the curious, beginning with Leonardo da Vinci, have studied turbulence in the Earth’s water and atmosphere, and all have found such movement difficult, if not impossible, to predict. Turbulence in a river occurs when rocks, holes, or sudden changes in the river channel obstruct the flow of the water. River rafters characterize turbulent flow by its irregular velocity and movement, reserving the term chaotic flow to describe the most dangerous parts of a whitewater river, where the river’s movement cannot be anticipated.

Lan Samantha Chang